Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Public health research paper outline Essay Example for Free

Public health research paper outline Essay I. Evidence of spanking as corporal punishment. a.Population: Children at school age (Forehand McMahon, 1981). The book successfully outlines the theoretical foundations of middle childhood and adolescence, in particular, the developmental tasks children are supposed to accomplish at certain age stage. The scholar also describes the distinctive features of boys’ and girls’ behavior and both implicitly and implicitly argues that mistakes and rule-breaking are critical in the process of obtaining autonomy in the middle childhood and early adolescence. b.Prevalence: About 55% adults reported they were physically punished in the childhood and teen years (Hyman, 1995). The article provides a detailed description of incidence and prevalence of spanking: for instance, it is stated that boys are punished more frequently than girls, parents with higher education and higher social class are less likely to spank; female parents use this disciplinary method more often than male. Moreover, the paper addresses the most common reasons minors are slapped for and the most widespread threats, associated with spanking (parental aggression, transition from punishment to revenge) . c. Significance: This is a debate that has been going on for decades. Some people believe it helps, others think it hinders a child’s social and behavioral development (Strauss and Donnelly, 2002). The writing is instrumental in its clear description of both parties of the spanking confrontation; importantly, the emphasis is placed upon the disputes between health care specialists and psychologists. The book also draws a distinction between spanking and physical abuse. II. Behavioral Dimensions. a. The impact of spanking on school behavior: Corporal punishment of children actually interferes with the process of learning and with their optimal development as socially responsible adults (Larzelere, 2005). The author provides a detailed review of existing studies, dedicated to the relationship between spanking and challenges in cognitive and emotional development. The article also illustrates the closed circle of physical punishment, which causes the fear of making a mistake and depresses concentration, critical thinking and initiative in behavior. b. Spanking and aggressive or violent behavior: Researchers have also found that children who are spanked show higher rates of aggression and delinquency in childhood than those who were not spanked (Polaha, Larzelere, Shapiro Pettit, 2004). The article points out the distinctive features and effects of spanking depending on ethnic group and shows that child maltreatment, or excessive use of physical measures, is an artificial means of disciplining minors, which does not allow them to develop self-discipline. In fact, when a child is battered at early age, they develop the convictions in the permissibility of misbehavior if it is not noticed by adults. Similarly, at older age, the person begins to believe that punishment will not follow a crime if the transgression is not revealed. III. Psycho-Social Dimensions. a. Impact of physical punishment on family atmosphere: When trust between children and their closest caretakers is damaged, the minor’s ability to form trusting relationships with others is also damaged, and the effect may be lifelong (Benjet Kazdin, 2003). The article addresses the numerous long-term intrafamilial difficulties, resulting from spanking adolescents, including the disappearance of respect and trust. b. Corporal punishment and antisocial behavior. Children show antisocial behaviors when corporal punishment is enforced: the probability of school dropout and minor crime increases.   (Grogan-Kaylor, 2005). The   research involved almost 2000 participants and was aimed at investigating the ways spanking impairs social life of male and female adolescents, their motivation to participate in community activities and social position in general. V. Prevention of Spanking. a. Strategies for strengthening mutual understanding between caregiver and minor: it is highly important that caregiver be aware of the causes of the child’s undesirable actions and the balancing options available (Strauss and Donnelly, 2002). The book also analyzes the relationship between parenting styles, family conflicts, socioeconomic background, parental values and child behavior, habits and conviction. b. Discipline strategies, involving no use of physical power. There are compliance-gaining strategies that work with children most of the time: harmless and non-stopping dialogue, interest in teenager’s life and emotional support by necessity (Larzelere Kuhn, 2005). The paper provides a very specific comparison of spanking and its â€Å"non-violence† alternatives and suggests that frequent spanking is much less helpful in the process of upbringing, except for the finding that it diminishes alcohol and substance abuse. VI. Legal Frameworks and Policy Interventions. a. Legal and policy aspects of spanking: there are no state laws against spanking, although 27 states have policies against the practice and this year Pennsylvania is debating becoming the 28th. Spanking in schools is currently allowed in 23 states although in many districts parents who object can withhold permission for school personnel to spank their kids (Durrant, 2004). The article draws parallels between children rights, declared in national and global legislation, and the state legal and policy foundations, regulating the treatment of minors. b. Health care and policy efforts: traditionally, moderate spanking is non-injurious, so health care associations and factions are neutrally disposed to such disciplinary measure, as opposed to civil society groups and religious organizations which seek to cultivate new upbringing patterns and incorporate them into public policies (Larzelere, 2005). The book contains useful information about the undertakings of child protection groups and agencies of the similar profile as well as community efforts, directed to parenting skills training and parent education in general.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Male Characters in Alice in Wonderland Essay -- Alice in Wonderla

It is amazing that nearly all critics of Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland focused solely on the character and adventures of the female protagonist/hero. A somewhat right-wing and didactic critique at Decent Films writes, â€Å"Alice embodies the gender feminist narrative of vibrant young girls losing their mojo as they come of age in patriarchal society.† The woman’s magazine, Jezebel, while praising the movie as â€Å"refreshingly feminist† seemed to notice only that the hero who fights against the forces of evil is a woman. Jezebel mentions other characters, but does not take the time to catalogue their relationship to feminism. In an Associated Content piece by Adriana Tanese-Nogueria which does, commendably, explore the feminist theme much more richly than many other reviews, still, the main focus is on Alice’s journey of feminist liberation. But Lewis Carroll also takes a look at the men in this story. Men during the Victorian era were kn own to have the control over the household and have a job. Their lives were around getting the perfect wife and making a lot of money. So when one reads some of the characters in Alice in Wonderland, one can see some difference in how he portrays some of the characters. When thinking about male characters, one would have to also include the male animal characters. During the time Carroll wrote this book, some would say that he bace the character on real people. The animals that portray different men that Lewis Carroll knew in the Victorian era. One could not talk about the men without including every male character . So first let’s start talking about the one character that leads Alice down the rabbit hole in the first place. The white rabbit is the one who gets Alice interested in... ...: ‘Refreshingly Feminist,’ Lacks Heart†. (The Jezebel review also provided a list of other sources for reviews. It was very helpful in preparing this piece.) National Catholic Register. Reprinted at Decent Films. â€Å"Alice in Wonderland (2010)†. Steven D. Greydanus. Sigler, Carolyn. "Authorizing Alice: Professional Authority, the Literary Marketplace, and Victorian Women's Re-Visions of the Alice Books." The Lion and the Unicorn 22.3 (1998): 351-63. ProQuest. Web. 7 May 2014. Spilka, Mark. "Victorian Childhoods." Michigan Quarterly Review 39.2 (2000): 411-21. ProQuest. Web. 7 May 2014. Woolf, Jenny. â€Å"Lewis Carroll's Shifting Reputation.† Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. April 2010. Web. 6 May 2014.

Monday, January 13, 2020

LaFleur Trading Company Essay

LaFleur Trading Company is an international food supplier located in Vancouver, British Columbia. They handle a large amount of different food and wine products and ship to consumers around the world. Their trading partners are listed to be in 38 different countries and they are based in Canada (which makes 39). LaFleur’s website lists the company mission as â€Å"We will provide our customers with the highest quality foods at a reasonable price.† (LaFleur, 2009) The list of products includes seafood, cheeses, wines, and fruits. Most of the customers for LTC come through the internet. The only real interaction that the company generally has with clients is through emails and phone calls. The desired reputation of the company is that of a high standard for product quality. The website says that the company â€Å"will act fairly and justly in the conduct of our business† and also acknowledges that customers get their perceptions of the company from the interactions with employees. LTC goes on to assure customers that their buyers â€Å"only deal with reputable producers and exporters† (LaFleur, 2009). With such an avid focus by consumers on labels, it is critical that LTC uphold their claim to maintain Canadian organic standards for all their organic products and to be able to regularly inspect products from each different country to ensure it all meets the same strict standards. Reasonable prices and high quality are the two promises that the company makes throughout their website. Certainly the ability to keep their promises will be determined solely by the dedication of the employees to do their jobs to the best of their ability. LTC employs individuals that are responsible for customer service, shipping, business to business relations, and quality assurance. Salesmen in the customer department as well as representatives responsible for securing purveyors can be eligible for commission bonuses. Quality assurance team members can be offered rewards for continuing to keep the standards set by the trading company rather than letting certain products slide. The organic label is one that must be more rigorously inspected, as the standards in this area are constantly being improved as environmental standards worldwide become stricter. The shipping team must be responsible to compare rates as well as the delivery times and  package conditions upon arrival. This area can lead to many challenges since the company is involved in shipping in so many different countries. Certainly it is a huge challenge to run a company with so many different cultures represented in their partners. Learning to merge local cultural ideology with the company’s ethical standards is something that must be addressed. One Boston, MA based company found a solution to this challenge when they opened their Bangkok branch. They built an entire team for such enterprises and appointed a director of worldwide culture and communications. The team, called Winning Operations Worldwide or WOW, had a purpose of building a bridge between the home office and the regional offices. The goal, according to the director was to decentralize operations so that the regional office employees would be able to successfully make their own decisions. They began providing extensive training exercises. â€Å"taught Team WOW members how to inject corporate values–teamwork, the interplay between speed and quality, risk taking, and thriving in change, and open communications–into their training programs† (Dunn, 2000) LaFleur Trading Company receives most of their customer orders online through their website. Safeguarding customer information received such as credit card or bank account information from being stolen or fraudulently used is a pertinent concern. Another issue that plagues online consumers is personal information such as e-mail, phone numbers, and mailing addresses. Customers value their privacy and companies that take the initiative to honor that wish for privacy are able to build better e-commerce. Fast Track 500 companies are working diligently to disclose any uses for customer information. â€Å"Nearly 95 percent of FastTrack respondents said top executives at their companies consider protecting customer privacy a critical part of their e-business strategy. According to the survey, top managers with profitable e-commerce ventures are even more likely to have this issue as a top priority† (Paul, 2000). LTC is an e-commerce company that would benefit tremendously from this type of focus. Customers want to know that their purchases and their information are protected. With partners in 39 different countries it would be virtually impossible not to have heightened security on their website and in their company policy. One potentially difficult ethical challenge to a trading company dealing in food would be the assurance that each product is free from harmful contaminants. This is an  issue that would start at the local level with the production of the food (or wine) and then involve the shipping process. Because of dealing with so many partners in different countries, it would take an entire team full-time attention to make sure that one set of standards is maintained throughout the product range. Customer service would be fairly inv olved at LaFleur Trading Company. Service specialists must have the ability to potentially communicate in multiple languages. Special translation software can help for online communications but phone representatives would need to include individuals who speak a variety of languages. Also, there would be cultural differences to take into consideration, such as some cultures prefer to only have men conduct business. Some cultures do not allow certain products, and most of the time customers will expect business to be conducted in the manner of their own culture rather than the manner of the parent company’s culture. Sometimes it is easy to offend someone of a different culture without even realizing it. â€Å"When in Rome do as the Romans† is an old adage that would apply here. Another possible solution would be to hire customer service representatives in each local market and route orders through the local affiliates. Providing a quality product at a reasonable rate through ethical business practices is a good standard for any company. Organizations such as LaFleur Trading Company have a very complex task to consistently provide that same level of service in such a large international market. Focusing on quality assurance, secure transactions and cultural diplomacy are three ways that organizations can succeed in the new global market. Keeping the concept of â€Å"local† as part of â€Å"global† will ensure long-term success as a grassroots effort spreads across countries worldwide. References Dunn, K. (Feb 2000). Values Training Spans From Boston to Bangkok. Workforce, 79, 2. p.90. Retrieved November 09, 2010, from General OneFile via Gale: LaFleur Trading Company (2009). Mission. Retrieved November 09, 2010, from

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Supply Chain Management And Operations Management - 747 Words

Part I, Objective 1: Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Operations Management (OM) Supply chain management is the business of overseeing the flow of materials to manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers and consumers. It is an external process that involves supply chain managers communicating with other vendors to ensure a product flows through the supply chain smoothly. Once a product reaches the consumer, it has already flowed through multiple organizations – these organizations collectively are referred to as the supply chain. Effective supply chain management should result in a relatively seamless production process while also minimizing costs on a continuing basis. Operations management, by definition, is the development, execution and†¦show more content†¦I also learned about three types of forecasting: short-term (daily operations, work schedules, production schedules), intermediate (product launches, employee hiring) and long-term (building/selling of a plant, opening/closing of facilities) which can all help in forecasting, or predicting, what demand will be and how many supplies will be needed to satisfy demand. Activity diagrams can also be used in project management (activity on arrow or activity on node) to determine the critical path and the shortest amount of time required to complete the critical path activities. Part I, Objective 4: Develop and Manage Efficient Global Supply Chains On a global level, I’ve learned that without the proper planning and forecasting, any disruptions will affect your supply chain drastically. In order to combat this, supply chain managers must take into consideration weather patterns in other locations, language barriers, government regulations and cultural differences and how to project demand in these unique scenarios. It’s also very costly to operate at a global level; calculating center-of-gravity seeks to calculate geographic conditions for a single facility that will minimize costs. Overall, I’ve learned it’s possible to minimize such risks by creating a plan, measuring performance frequently andShow MoreRelatedSupply Chain Management And Operation Management1374 Words   |  6 Pages1) Definition of the scope Supply chain management and operation management have become integral components as far as organizational competitiveness is concerned. This paper will begin by offering a literature review about supply chain management and operations management. 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Examples that highlight your conclusion Table of Contents: I. Executive Summary†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.2 II. Operations Management and Profitability†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.3 III. Supply Chain Management and Profitability†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.5 IV. Examples/Case Studies†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Read MoreSupply Chain Management: Operations Management Essay1330 Words   |  6 PagesSupply Chain Management: Operations Management Introduction Operations Management is the term we use for the management of the resources necessary to produce and deliver the products and services required by customers. These resources include labour, materials and capital equipment. The following definition reflects the nature of Operations management: Operations management is about the way organizations produce goods and services. Everything you wear, eat, sit on, use, read or knock aboutRead MoreOperations and Supply Chain Management1804 Words   |  8 PagesWhen marketing, engineering, and operations simultaneously develop a process (cross -functional integration), this approach is known as __________ ________________. A) sequential process B) traditional approach C) concurrent engineering D) both A and B E) none of the above Feedback: C is the correct answer. Unlike the traditional serial or sequential approach, concurrent engineering uses cross-functional integration for concurrent development of a product