Thursday, November 28, 2019

Postmodernist Trends in Projects by Ashton Raggatt McDougall

Contemporary architecture has a range of characteristic features, such as; the collision of different styles, the expression of ideas in shapes, the use of cutting-edge technologies, experiments with materials and colors, energy efficiency, interaction between indoor and outdoor space, and other peculiar trends. At the same time, contemporary architecture has one more important characteristic. It is still able to astonish people.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Postmodernist Trends in Projects by Ashton Raggatt McDougall specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Contemporary architects create works that make the viewers of their designs feel controversial emotions about them. Maybe, one day the society will get accustomed to the constructions of incredible colours and shapes. However, today such buildings as London’s 30 St Mary Axe (or the Gherkin), the Sage Gateshead in north eastern England or the City Hall, the headquarters of the Greater London Authority, the U.S. Kansas City Public Library and the Aqua Building in Chicago, Illinois all engender heated discussion within society. Australia is no exception, besides its Sydney Opera House which is famous throughout the world, this country has amazed us with Melbourne’s Federation Square, the Sidney Myer Music Bowl and many other incredible buildings. Australian architecture is considered to have its distinctive features that have no precedent in the World. â€Å"Bright orange and curling overhead like a roller-coaster†¦Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"A vibrant palette of crimson, orange, bronze, gold, black and brushed silver†, â€Å"a great light and open space with curving walls, windows and ceilings† (Nma.Gov.Au), it would be quite difficult to guess what this conundrum is about. Nevertheless, this is the description of the National Museum of Australia building. It was constructed by Ashton Raggatt McDougall (ARM), on e of the prominent Australian companies of architects famous of originality of their works. In this essay, the works of ARM are discussed as the incarnation of postmodernist ideas in architecture. The purpose of the essay is observation of ARM’s style and definition of postmodernism â€Å"outside† and â€Å"inside† several projects fulfilled by them; critical reactions on the works by Ashton Raggatt McDougall are observed as well. To advance in the discussion, it is necessary first to discuss the essence of postmodernism as a phenomenon in modern culture. The characteristic features of postmodernist culture are the switch from content to form, collision of different styles and techniques, elimination of standards, canons and the framework of traditional values, aspiration for experiments and originality, exaggerations and play with meaning (Storey, 2009, p.183). Postmodernism tends to eliminate the borders between art and everyday life, â€Å"low† and â⠂¬Å"high† culture†, commercial and not commercial, seriousness and entertainment (ibid.). These principles turned out to be possible to embody in architecture as successfully as in other kinds of art, and the works of ARM are the evidence for this statement. Below, some of the projects by ARM are discussed from the perspective of postmodernist trends in their design.Advertising Looking for critical writing on architecture? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bingham-Hall and Goad (2005) highlight that the style of ARM has no analogy in the world. They characterise it as not concerning with â€Å"orthodox notions of architectural space, linguistic conventions or tectonic truth† (p. 75). This is an eloquent illustration of how the postmodernist desire to follow to no standards and frameworks is embodied in architecture. The authors emphasise that the ARM do not demonstrate â€Å"commitment† to a single aest hetic† (ibid.). The architects experiment with shapes and textures, meanings and contexts. Their aim is â€Å"transfiguration, transformation (visual, sensual and spiritual)† (ibid.). The description of the Storey Hall (p. 76) makes one involuntarily think about how strong the aspiration of postmodernism culture for possessing, copying, â€Å"quoting† and then fusing is. The â€Å"devotional† building is coloured â€Å"a vivid green in honor of the Hibernian Irish Catholic Community† and â€Å"purple and white, the colours of the Women’s Political Association† (ibid.). The building has the allusions to â€Å"much loved Melbourne monuments† (ibid.). Moreover, Jackson and Johnson (2002) also mentions the resurrection of the â€Å"ideas from the Romantic period of the early Enlightening† . Another good example of the incarnation of postmodernist ideas in architecture is the â€Å"open book† extension of the St. Kilda Library constructed in the early 1990s. Jackson and Johnson discuss the incredible â€Å"literal symbolism† of the building. In this object constructed of â€Å"bluestone grave like monumental tomes found in local cemeteries, the ARM embodied the idea about the gradual elimination of paper book publishing that existed in 1990s (ibid). This construction is the embodiment of the postmodernism’s desire to focus on â€Å"manners† making â€Å"matters† only a source of new original ideas and associations and express ideas literally (even very literally). The idea of the Library extension makes one think about time and changes that it brings; the idea is significant and important, but the architects prefer to express it in an eloquent, clear manner, not veiling the â€Å"content†; thus, the construction is the â€Å"open book† in all senses of this expression. Thus, it is possible to notice several distinctive features of ARM’s style, whic h are shifting the balance between content and shape, originality and experiments, fusion of history and the present, and â€Å"literal symbolism†. It is easy to see how these principles took shape in one of ARM’s most significant and famous projects, which is the National Museum of Australia (NMA). â€Å"Avoiding traditional museum interpretations, the architects developed a post-modern structure reflecting the diversity of the Museum’s collection†, announces the official website of the NMA (NMA.Gov.Au).Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Postmodernist Trends in Projects by Ashton Raggatt McDougall specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This approach to construction of culture and scholarship facilities seems to be ARM’s favorite subject when one recollects the St. Kilda’s Library and the Storey Hall, â€Å"ARM’s architecture highlights the chaos of transformi ng scholarly institutions into commercial sellers of new packages of knowledge to international customers† (Johnson and Jackson, 2002). This quotation eloquently reflects the approach of design of the NMA building: the museum is much more than a store for historical knowledge preserved by the exhibits for the select few; today, it has turned into one of the most popular places of tourism and entertainment in Australia being incredibly popular with the guests of the country. Indeed, the museum sells â€Å"packages of knowledge to international customers† (ibid.). In the construction of the NMA, ARM’s â€Å"literal symbolism† and eagerness towards exaggeration are displayed quite eloquently. Each of its parts is connected with a certain idea. A certain part of the museum’s exhibition spaces the Garden of Australian Dreams, â€Å"a symbolic landscape† with â€Å"large sculptural forms within a body of water† (Nma.Com.Au). It is described as â€Å"a 3D Pop Art street directory of an â€Å"other† Australia† (Bingham-Hall and Goad, p.77), the giant loop and the bright Uluru line (Nma.Com.Au). The architects also play with colours (â€Å"crimson, orange, bronze, gold†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ) and textures (â€Å"from smooth finish of the anodized aluminium panels†¦ to the deeply patterned moulded concrete surface†¦) (ibid.). Thus, the NMA has been constructed in ARM’s traditions outlined by the authors of the sources discussed above. Indeed, having constructed their â€Å"most controversial building to date† (Bingham-Hall and Goad, p.77), ARM have done their best to turn the museum into the facility that is able to successfully sell â€Å"packages of knowledge to international consumers†. At the same time, together with the â€Å"postmodernist exterior† of the Museum, the inner space and the exhibitions offered in the NMA diverge from traditional approaches that exist in museol ogy and incline to the ideas of postmodernism, which awakens critics’ controversial remarks but excites the majority of visitors.Advertising Looking for critical writing on architecture? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The buildings discussed above have been constructed during the previous decades; it would be interesting to see how postmodernist trends show themselves in ARM’s works today. Now, it is necessary to allude to one of ARM’s latest projects, which is the so-called Portrait Building (completion due 2014) (ARM). During the last decades, the works architects from different countries of the world contributed to the fact that today it is quite difficult to impress citizens with design of a skyscraper. The Gherkin building mentioned in the introduction is just one example, and it is possible to recollect many others. ARM’s new project does not amaze with its strange shape or bright colors. Nor does it imply using some peculiar technology or materials – the building is planned to be constructed of concrete. Its faà §ade just displays†¦ the portrait of William Barak, â€Å"the last traditional ngurungaeta (elder) of the Wurundjeri-willam Clan†, original ly designed by sculptor Peter Schipperheyn (ibid.). The portrait is formed by a series of panels on the balconies and can be seen by viewers from a big distance. The architects describe the project as the â€Å"symbolic representation of Melbourne’s indigenous culture and history† (UAP Marker), which makes one think about the expression â€Å"literal symbolism† by Jackson and Johnson mentioned above. In this project, one may see the fusion of the past and the future, everyday life and culture, painting and architecture, which is very peculiar to postmodernism. The Portrait Building provides high-quality apartments, gives credit for a significant personality of the Australian history, and impresses the observers. In fact, the approach to design of the building is quite similar to that used in construction of the National Museum, where history and modern times, learning and entertainment co-exist and interact. After getting familiarised with ARM’s works, on e may be interested in the critical responses to them. It is quite difficult to imagine that they may not awaken hot discussion with contradicting opinions. It would be reasonable to mark that attitude to ARM’s style has been changing. It has been marked above that there are certain similarities in approach to the design of the Museum and the Portrait Building. At the same time, the critical responses on both projects demonstrated how the viewers gradually â€Å"get used† to ARM’s postmodernist ideas. The projects of the National Museum and the Portrait Building are separated by almost a decade; at the same time, despite the mentioned similarity between the approaches to the design, the responses on the Portrait Building are much warmer than those devoted to the National Museum. The reviews devoted to the National Museum emphasised the presence of postmodernist trends in NMA’s design and, as well as in the approach to developing exhibitions. For example, calling the NMA a â€Å"mishmash†, Tim Lloyd discusses the exhibitions of the museum and compares it to the South Australia Museum (2003, p.68). Lloyd emphasises the eclecticism, inconsistency and presentation of the â€Å"politically charged version of history†. However, this did not hinder for the museum to become a commercially successful project since the first years of its existence (ibid.). Having described the landscape of the Garden of Australian Dreams, Catherin Bull makes the conclusion that it â€Å"has met one of designer’s goals, to challenge the traditions and mores of the profession, and, just as importantly, to be seen to be doing so† (Bull, Stead and Ashton, 2002). At the same time, analogically to Lloyd, Bull mentions that the professional debate about the Garden does not hinder its popularity with children and adults who enjoy the sensation of hyperreality. Talking about the museum and museology, Naomi Stead marks the â€Å"overriding allegory – Australian nationhood as many stories tangled together† (ibid.), which sounds quite consonant with the discussion of ARM’s â€Å"literal symbolism†. Stead nevertheless mentions that in the ways the exhibitions are organised and placed, â€Å"the relationship seems less successful† (ibid.). This makes one think about Lloyd’s statement about the inconsistence of the museum. Thus, though admitting that the NMA is popular with visitors, reviewers are somewhat critical regarding the postmodernist approach in NMA’s museology. Postmodernist trends are considered as the way to attract attention and impress rather than deliver useful, serious information. Despite this criticism, the NMA also had a range of positive reviews – for example, Drayson says that â€Å"its value to our cultural heritage†¦ cannot be measured in dollars and cents† (2001). When viewing the bidy of critical response as a whole skepticism was n evertheless prevailing rather than excitement and approval. However, comparison of the NMA reviews and those devoted to the Portrait Building demonstrates that today the society is more ready to accept the architects’ ideas expressed in the â€Å"postmodernist manner†. The reviews devoted to the Portrait Building emphasise that besides its originality, the project has a significant message which is important to deliver to the modern Australian society. In a bright, â€Å"popular† manner, the architects give viewers opportunity to think about history and keep its outstanding personalities in their memory. â€Å"The Wurundjeri community is very moved by this gesture and appreciates the respect that both Grocon and ARM have shown in developing this exciting concept†, says Megan Goulding, the Wurundjeri Tribal Land Council CEO (CSR Wire). The government also supports the idea of the Portrait building, â€Å"†¦This commemoration of the life of William Ba rak is one that the Victorian Government certainly applauds†, says Richard Wynne, Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Minister (ibid.). Architects also give positive evaluation to the ARM’s project, â€Å"Congratulations to ARM on an excellent site-specific integration of artwork and architecture. It is sure to make a strong and lasting contribution to the site and the city† (UAP Marker). It is interesting that not only architects and critics give positive evaluation to the Portrait building; ordinary citizens also support the project. The poll carried out by Heraldsun (Barry) demonstrates that about two thirds of the participants (711 of 1101) like the design of the building, and only 390 participants expressed their dislike towards it. Thus, it is reasonable to emphasize two changes that are demonstrated by the critical reviews of two abovementioned buildings. Firstly, the society is not afraid of â€Å"literal symbolism† any more; nor is it irritated by it. Fo r a long time, absence of any allegory in art, particularly, in architecture, was considered the manifestation of bad manners. A library building in the form of a book, a portrait on the building – yet several decades ago such approaches to expression of ideas would be evaluated as shallow and tasteless. However, today â€Å"manners† are not expected to be an unpretentious instrument used to tell about â€Å"matters†. The second dramatic change is the reduction of the gap between education and entertainment. The National Museum was criticized by many critics, as museums were expected to provide visitors with important information and hardly be the place for fun. Today, the â€Å"educative function† of the Portrait building is beyond question for people. â€Å"†¦I suspect a lot of people will read a whole lot of things into this†, says Daniel Grollo, Groco chief executive (Barry). The review of four projects developed by ARM gives us opportunit y to notice eloquent manifestations of postmodernist trends in ARM’s creative works. The NMA and other designs of ARM are considered to be full of â€Å"literal symbolism†, eclecticism and aspiration for breaking the rules of architecture. The exhibitions of the museum, despite being evaluated by some reviewers as inconsistent and politically subjective, prove to be commercially successful, which means that ARM really succeeded to construct an object that has become a â€Å"commercial seller of new packages of knowledge to international customers†. The architects do not tend to create â€Å"empty† shallow projects; each of them has its idea, a message to the community. At the same time, ARM do not â€Å"draw a veil† over these ideas like artists of the period of modernism did; the message of ARM’s works is clear to ordinary citizens, which is the manifestation of the postmodernist elimination of the border between â€Å"elite† and â⠂¬Å"popular† art. Observation of the reviews devoted to ARM’s projects has demonstrated that the society is gradually â€Å"getting used† to the postmodernist trends in architecture and now welcomes the mentioned approaches in design of buildings. References ARM, 2010. Portrait. ARM. Available through:  . Barry, E., 2010. Building with Portrait of Leader to Become Melbourne’s newest landmark. Heraldsun, Sept 15 2010. Web. Bingham-Hall, P. and Goad, P., 2005. New Directions in Australian Architecture. Singapore: Periplus. Bull, C. Stead, N. and Ashton, S., 2002. Landscape, Museology, and Alliance. Architecture Australia, 91(2). Available through: Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre. CSR Wire, 2010. Portrait Building Launched at Carlton Brewery Site. CSR Wire. Available through: . Drayson, N., 2001. National Muse um of Australia. Australian Geographic, 61. Available through: Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre. Jackson, D. and Johnson, C., 2002. Australian Architecture Now. London: Thames Hudson. Lloyd, T., 2002. Museum a Cultural Mishmash. Advertiser, The Jan 27 2003. Available through: Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre database . Storey, J., 2009. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: An Introduction. 5th ed. New York, London: Pearson Longman. UAP Marker, 2010. Portrait Building. UAP Marker 16 Sept 2010. Web. 4 Pictures (Illustrations for the text) Portrait Building Storey Hall St Kilda Library NMA This critical writing on Postmodernist Trends in Projects by Ashton Raggatt McDougall was written and submitted by user Manta to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Vacation Comparitive Essay Essays

Vacation Comparitive Essay Essays Vacation Comparitive Essay Essay Vacation Comparitive Essay Essay Stone 1 Christina Stone ENG 111W1 Ms. Staples 10/28/2011 Vacationing at the Beach or The Mountains There are several places to go on a summer vacation. Two of the most popular places to go is either the mountains or the beach. Even though the beach and the mountains are both popular vacationing spots in the summer, they have several differences. Myrtle Beach in South Carolina and The Great Smokey Mountain in Tennessee are the closest of the type to people in Virginia. They are both great places to enjoy a wonderful family vacation during the summer. The climate during the summer at the beach averages 88 degrees during the day. The nights can be quite comfortable averaging 76 degrees with the cool ocean breeze. There is an average of 215 sunny days throught out the year. Some days can be humid with the moisture from the ocean being so close. The beach is always full of different activities for the whole family to enjoy. On those hot days laying out on the beach and swimming in the ocean are among the most popular. Building sandcastles in the sand is also fun. Fishing, boating and parasailing are also enjoyable things to do while at the beach. On the those super hot days when the sand is to hot for a persons feet, a trip to one of the waterparks in the area can cool the day off just right. There are several different beach locations to choose from along the coast. Myrtle Beach or Virginia Beach are two of the larger and most popular beaches to vacation at. North Carolina and Georgia also have smaller more private places to enjoy the beach. The coast all the way from Florida to New York have beaches to choose from. In contrast to a summer vacation at the beach the other popular choice is the mountains. The weather in the mountains is full of heat, haze and humidity. Afternoon showers and thunderstorms are also common throughout the summers. The average temerature in the summer is usually in the 90s. The temerature can also vary ten to twenty degrees depending on the elevation. The mountains also have an abundance of family friendly activities. Camping is one of the most enjoyable, either in a tent or by renting a cabin. There are hundreds of waterfalls to view on almost every stretch of the rivers. It is nice to spend a whole day hiking some of the hundreds of miles of hiking trails along the mountain ridges. Many different types of Wildlife can be view from anywhere in the mountains. The Great Smokey Mountains is the most popular mountain spot to enjoy a vacation with locations in North Carolina and Tennesse. The mountains and the beach are both great places to vacation. They both have great weather and plenty of activities to keep a family entertained. They share common everyday things to do such as shopping and great restaurants to dine at. Fishing is also popular at both place with saltwater fishing and the beach and freshwater and trout fishing in the mountains. So when choosing a place to vacation, the beach and the mountains are both great places with equally enjoyable things to do.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Journal 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Journal 2 - Essay Example Barfing is something that is universal and yet so private, which makes it a perfect symbol of identity. Myles is telling a story about her political sestina, and then she narrates a story concerning a boat of barfers. She wants to puke herself because of her poem and her own feelings for it. She wants to express her sincere emotions, like a barf would have. In real life, however, it is hard to be â€Å"real† without being judged as fake. I believe she wants to say that to puke is â€Å"to be,† in the terms of â€Å"identity.† To puke is utterly natural in a most disgusting way. Who said it is disgusting anyway? Why cannot people freely barf without being judged? In other words, why cannot people be who they are and who they want to be with without feeling the disgusted eyes of the people around them? Myles is showing the way to knowing thyself through the art of barfing the inner contents of oneself. Myles’ relationship with her mother is troubled and the center of her barfing because as her mother, she is her foundation as a person. Myles, nevertheless, admits her complex relationship with the woman who gave birth to her. On the one hand, she wants to be near her again. I want to confirm with Myles if it is for companionship. Does she want to be with her mother because of her failed relationships with other women? She might be craving for comfort from the original woman of her life. Or, Myles might be blaming her mother for controlling her life, so she might as well suffer with her. Despite the restless emotions, Myles understands that her mother has not completely destroyed her. Living with her mother has turned her into a puke hater. She must have wanted to puke because she has a hard time being who she is with her mother. Myles cannot directly express her identity to her mother. Puking is her release. It is her way of â€Å"being† without being so blatant about it. Forming and

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Bullying. Types of bullying. Age and gender differences in Bullying Research Paper

Bullying. Types of bullying. Age and gender differences in Bullying - Research Paper Example According to a recent statistics, â€Å"1 in 2 students experience occasional bullying during any school term. Moreover, 1 in 4 students in primary school are bullied more than once or twice at least in any term†(Statistics on Bullying, n. d.). According to Dune et al. (2010), â€Å"Bullying, aggression and other forms of violence in schools can blight student experiences of formal education and their abilities to make the best of the opportunities they have† (Dune et al, 2010, p.1). There are many cases in which school bullying cased not only psychological problems such as depression but also suicide tendency as well. In short, bullying should be prohibited in school compounds at any cost. This paper reviews the available literature to find out what intervention can a Case planner use with 12 grade students in a Long Island, Commack- New York day program classroom to discourage the issue of bullying with students. In order to formulate an intervention plan against bull ying a case planner should have ideas about things like; Types of bullying, Age and gender differences in Bullying, characteristics of victims, Participant’s role in bullying, Reporting of bullying etc Types of bullying Bullying occurs in many forms such as physical, verbal, social, and cyber. ... Physical bullying can be prevented up to certain extent by taking actions against unnecessary gang formation in schools. â€Å"Verbal bullying is name-calling, making offensive remarks, or joking about a person's religion, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or the way they look† (Types of bullying, n. d.). It is an act of teasing. It is normally performed by a group of people upon an individual. Verbal bullying can lead towards physical assaults or physical bullying. Verbal bullying usually develops psychological problems such as depression, anxiety etc. to the victim. It can cause loss of interest in studies and other daily activities. Schools should implement a code of conduct for in order to avoid verbal bullying. â€Å"Social alienation is when a bully excludes someone from a group on purpose. It also includes a bully spreading rumours, and also making fun of someone by pointing out their differences† (Types of bullying, n. d.). It is an act of isolation. In s ocial bullying, the offenders will prevent the victim from interacting with others. Offenders normally spread fabricated stories about the victim so that nobody will try to mingle with the victim. Schools should take stern actions against those who try to isolate somebody from the main streams of school life. â€Å"92 students aged 11-16 from 14 London schools completed a survey on bullying. 22% had experienced cyber bullying at least once. 6.6% had experienced being bullied in this way in the previous two months† (International Network, 2010). Cyber bullying is an act of spreading rumors or false stories against the victim with the help of internet. Electronic devices such as mobile

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Managing Change and Innovation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Managing Change and Innovation - Essay Example But then again, are these measures sufficient? True enough, money, skilled workers, viable product and an aggressive marketing campaign will make a business (Henry & Mayle 2002). Combined with healthy competition, the result is a thriving conglomerate. Mixing this recipe a thousand times over results in several thriving conglomerates each vying for the top. What then is the missing ingredient that may bolster any business into longevity and resilience when pitted against several others like it? One businessman may claim that for a company to be able to keep abreast of the fast change in the market, it is important that the company keep close to the customer by creating a culture of openness and adopting a mindset of flexibility and inquiry (Brynteson 2010). Another argument is that technology must be taken full advantage of as it plays a key role in enabling radical new options and the implementation of bright new ideas (Tidd & Bessant 2009). â€Å"The only thing that does not chang e is change itself.† This phrase is true and that as a matter of fact, change is the only event not marred by its predilection to either occur or not. It is certain to ensue. By itself, one must then be vigilant and though complete preparation cannot be undertaken, it must still be carried on. Utmost diligence and keen foresight may be the only weapons that could hold off the crippling effects of constant evolution. Innovation as Catalyst for Corporate Dominance In business, this evolution is referred to as development or advancement or what is more commonly called â€Å"progress.† This is characterized as the continued instigation of ideas translated into product, process or theory. Often, this development is manipulated and taken advantage of by venture capitalists such that these inventions become their ticket in entering the global trading pool. Corporate officers  use management tools to dramatically increase the payoff from  innovation investments (Davila, Eps tein, & Shelton 2005). But in order to stay in the game, entrepreneurs cannot rely solely on the initial stance of their offer. It must be reinvented, upgraded and further developed so as to maximize its full potential. An outline of the guiding techniques for planning and implementation must be performed by enterprises to ascertain their performance vis-a-vis their goals (Carnall 2007). But then again, a particular object can only take on so much and time will come when it would eventually bow down to a more novel concept. As such, businessmen must employ any and all means necessary to make the most out of their offer. This is where marketing strategies and advertising campaign come to play. But a new advent in business management has emerged, such that promotional tactics and selling techniques have seemingly taken an abrupt exit, in the guise of innovation management (Trott 2008). Innovation Defined Innovation, from a business perspective, is defined by Mayle (2006) as a vehicle of growth. Innovation is the strategy necessary to remain an active player in the global market by continually revolutionizing the economic structure, creating new products and enhancing current business processes. Schumpeter (1943), in his work, has maintained that in order to stay in the economic playing field, entrepreneurs must constantly search for better ways to satisfy their patrons by offering the best quality in the lowest cost possible. In another, it is claimed that the primal objective of a corporate entity

Friday, November 15, 2019

Gated DIBH for Left Sided Breast Cancer Patients

Gated DIBH for Left Sided Breast Cancer Patients Chapter III: Methodology 3.1 Research Objectives The research project examines left-sided breast cancer patients receiving therapy with gated DIBH technique using the commercially available RPM system. The primary objective of this research is to evaluate whether left-sided breast cancer patients will benefit from gated DIBH. The interest in performing this research arises from having many left-sided breast cancer patients that have large volume of heart in the treatment field, and hence are at risk for cardiac toxicities in the future. The secondary objectives of this research is to look at patient’s comfort and understanding, and radiation therapist’s workload. This chapter will discuss the sample selection, ethical issues, instrumentation, data collection procedures, data analysis, limitations, expected results, budget and timeline. 3.2 Sample selection and description The expected sample size was calculated using the formula (Chan, 2003) for paired samples as seen below, Total sample size = where c is 10.5 for 90% power, ÃŽ ´ is the standardised effect size, given by the formula (Chan, 2003): where ÃŽ ¼1 and ÃŽ ¼2 are the means of the two treatment groups, and ÏÆ' is the common standard deviation. The 90% power represents the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false (Chan, 2003). It is postulated that a good treatment difference () between the 2 groups is 0.2 units with an SD (ÏÆ') of 0.5 units (Chan, 2003). With these values, the expected sample size is 68. Sixty-eight left-sided breast cancer patients will be selected for this research using a simple random sampling method. The patient population will be chosen at random to create a diverse group of patients with variable breast and heart volumes. The criteria for this sample would be female patients with left-sided breast cancer below the age of 70. In addition, the patients must be able to hold their breath. These patients will be recruited after being screened by the oncologists. The oncologists will do a simple breath-hold test with patients to determine if they are able to hold their breath for at least 20 seconds. This is because patients will be required to hold their breath during the CT scan for a duration of 18 seconds. This research will require 2 sets of computed-tomography (CT) scans from each patient of which one is at free breathing and the other at DIBH. Both sets will have identical patient setup. Patients will be lying supine with both arms above head on a posirest, having the visual goggles on (see Appendix M, image A) with a 6-reflective markers block on patient’s anterior abdominal surface (see Appendix H). With the goggles, they are able to view the screen, as seen in image B in Appendix M, in order to see their breathing patterns. For each patient, 2 treatment plans will be generated: one using the CT images at free breathing with photon electron match technique and the other using the CT images at DIBH with gated DIBH technique using RPM with 3-mm intervals. 3.3 Ethical Issues and Informed consent Any research involving human subjects conducted in the hospital would require adherence to ethical standards. The procedure requires the collation of a list of investigators in the department that intends to conduct clinical trials (see Appendix N), and to apply and attend the Singapore Guideline for Good Clinical Practice (SGGCP) course. This Course ensures that the conduct of clinical trials follows internationally acceptable ethical and scientific standards (see Appendix O). The ethics review will be carried out by the National Healthcare Group domain specific review board which is an independent committee constituted of medical, scientific and non-scientific members, whose responsibility is to ensure the protection of the rights, safety and well-being of human subjects involved in a research study by reviewing, approving and providing continuing review of research studies, and of the methods and materials to be used in obtaining and documenting informed consent of the research su bjects (National University Health System, 2010). When a principal investigator submits an application via the research online administration and management system, it is automatically routed to the department representative for endorsement, and subsequently the institution representative for endorsement, before it is delivered to the domain specific review board secretariat (National University Health System, 2010). All research studies submitted will be classified under one of the following review categories: exempt review, expedited review, full Board review (see Appendix P) (National University Health System, 2010). Based on the definitions in Appendix P, this study is classified as an expedited review. Ethics approval for research is required for several reasons. Firstly, ethical norms promote the aims of research, such as knowledge, truth, and avoidance of error (Resnik, 2011). Secondly, ethical standards promote the values that are essential to collaborative work, such as trust, accountability, mutual respect, and fairness (Resnik, 2011). For example, guidelines for authorship, copyright and patenting policies, data sharing policies, and confidentiality rules in peer review, are designed to protect intellectual property interests while encouraging collaboration (Poortmans, 2013). Ethical norms in research also help to build public support for research as people are more likely to fund research project if they can trust the quality and integrity of research (Resnik, 2011). Finally, many of the norms of research promote a variety of other important moral and social values, such as social responsibility, human rights, compliance with the law, and health and safety. This also protect the rights and welfare of participants and minimise the risk of physical and mental discomfort and harm from research procedures (Canterbury Christ Church University, 2006). Ethical lapses in research can significantly harm human subjects especially if the researcher fails to abide by the regulations and guidelines relating to radiation or biological safety (Resnik, 2011). Informed consent is the process by which the patient voluntarily confirms her willingness to participate in this research, after being informed of all the aspects of the research that are relevant to her decision-making (National Healthcare Group, 2013). The informed consent is documented by means of written signatures, date informed consent form and the language used during the explanation to the patient by the oncologist. In the consent, there should be 3 signatures: the patient’s, the doctor’s and the witness’ signature. For patients who cannot read and speak English, a qualified translator will be around during the signing of the consent. 3.4 Research design and instrumentation This research is a mixture of qualitative and quantitative research methods (see Appendix Q). Quantitative research corresponds to a deductive scientific method of research which uses data in the form of numbers and statistics to test hypotheses, using a large and randomly selected sample that is a representative of the population (Pearce, et al. 2013; Johnson Christensen 2010). This is in contrast to the qualitative approach which corresponds to an inductive method of research which uses words, pictures or objects to examine a phenomenon, requiring only a small and non-randomly selected sample (Pearce, et al. 2013; Johnson Christensen 2010). Patients will be scanned using Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT-simulator (Toshiba, 2014). The treatment plans will be generated using Varian Medical Eclipseâ„ ¢ Treatment Planning System and patients will be treated with DIBH technique using RPM from Varian Trilogy linear accelerator (Varian Medical System, 1999-2014). 3.5 Data collection procedures The same radiation oncologist will perform all the delineation of the clinical target volume, the heart and LADCA for consistency purposes (see Appendix R). The delineation will be done according to radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) breast contouring recommendations (Goksel, et al., 2013). Patient’s CT images at breath hold will be used to plan for DIBH technique while the one at free breathing will be planned for photon electron match technique. The treatments will be planned such that the clinical target volume’s coverage of the dose distribution is kept between 90% and 110% of the prescribed dose. For each plan, heart and LADCA volumes were calculated in cm3. Dose volumes to the heart and LADCA will be normalized by dividing with the total organ volume. Heart and LADCA volumes receiving 5Gy to 50Gy (V5-V50) will be generated for comparison of treatment techniques. Dose distributions can be presented as DVHs and representing the statistical dose distribution in a volume of interest. These statistical data will be recorded and presented in tables. Patient education is a very important component in DIBH technique using RPM to reduce anxiety and increase their confidence about receiving radiation therapy (Halkett Kristjanson, 2007). Patient education tools can be in many forms such as video or pamphlet (Halkett Kristjanson, 2007). For this research, a pamphlet have been created to educate patients on DIBH technique using RPM (see Appendix S). A qualitative research method such as face-to-face interview is chosen to assess patient’s comfort and understanding at the middle of the treatment and on the last day of treatment as this only require the patients to speak the same language in which the questions are asked, and to have basic verbal and listening skills (Bowling, 2009). The primary objective of this standardised and open-ended interview (Valenzuela Shrivastava, n.d.) is to determine the degree of understanding as well as patient’s comfort. The questions (see Appendix T) will be asked by the oncologist durin g the middle of the treatment and on the last day of treatment. The advantages of face-to-face interviews are that reading and writing skills are not required, interviewers are able to probe fully for responses and clarify any ambiguities, they can ask more complicated and detailed questions, and patients are able to clarify if they do not understand the questions (Bowling, 2009). This would be a better technique than self-administered questionnaires because pre-coded response choices may not be sufficiently comprehensive and patients may be ‘forced’ to choose inappropriate pre-coded answers that might not fully represent their views (Bowling, 2009). This causes the data to be bias as the patient’s replies are influenced by the design of the pre-coded response choices. Self-administered questionnaires also assumed that the questions are worded in a way that is understood by the patients (Bowling, 2009). Patients may misinterpret the questions and reply based on their own interpretation and questionnaires may be a problem for p atients who are unable to read or write (Bowling, 2009). Most importantly, one-to-one interviews with standardised questions appeared to have the highest reliability (University of Leicester, n.d.). The radiation therapist’s workload will be measured in terms of training hours, and the comparison of treatment duration and manpower required for gated DIBH using RPM and photon electron match technique (see Appendix U) will be recorded and presented in charts. 3.6 Data analysis Paired samples t-test will be used to determine whether there is a significant difference between the average dose to the heart and LADCA values made under photon electron match plan and gated DIBH using RPM plan (Norman Streiner, 2008). This is used because the data are measured at the scale level and the data are related (Hawkins, 2009). The amount of radiation received by the heart can be recorded by comparing the DVHs of the photon electron match with gated DIBH using RPM. The statistical figures can be analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (Yavas, et al., 2012). Paired samples t-test will be used to determine whether there is a significant difference between the average dose to the heart and LADCA values made under photon electron match plan and gated DIBH using RPM plan (Easton McColl, 2014). A p-value of Patient’s understanding and comfort The questions (see Appendix T) from the standardised and open-ended interview were developed by a team of 2 radiation oncologists, a nurse and 2 radiation therapists. The areas of discussion were based on the group’s clinical experience with left-sided breast cancer patients and their extensive knowledge on DIBH using RPM. The interview aims to determine the patient’s level of comfort and understanding of the gated DIBH using RPM. The design of the questionnaire will determine the reliability and validity of the opened-ended interview to measure patient’s level of comfort and understanding. Reliability is defined as the extent to which questionnaire will produce the same results on repeated trials (Miller, n.d.), and is measured by its equivalence and stability. Equivalence reliability assesses the consistency of the judgement of the patient’s answer by the interview (Miller, n.d.). It is improved by pre-empting a range of responses that might be given by the patients and give a pre-determined rating to each response so that the interviewers will have the same level of ‘judgement’ (Miller, n.d.). For example, _____________- Stability reliability is correlated to the repeatability of the patient’s response under the same conditions after a period of time (Miller, n.d.). For this interview, the patients will be interviewed twice, once during mid-treatment and the other on the last day of their treatment. Their responses from both sessions will be compared to determine if there are any deviance. This assumes that the characteristics that is measured doesn’t change with time, and that the time period is long enough that the memories from the 1st interview will not influence the responses of the 2nd interview (Miller, n.d.). The validity of the interview is the extent to which the interview questions measures what it purport to measure, and it generally takes the form of content validity (Miller, n.d.). Content validity is the degree to which the questions fully assess or measure the intention of the interview (Miller, n.d.). This was determined by letting the team review the individual questions for readability, clarity and comprehensiveness and come to some level of agreement as to which items should be included in the final interview questions. The interview questions (see Appendix T) were reviewed and accepted by the team prior to the conduct of the interview. The treatment duration will be recorded as seen in Appendix U and a paired samples t-test similar to appendix V will be used to determine whether there is a significant difference, where the null hypothesis (H0) is there is no difference between the treatment time with photon electron match technique and DIBH using RPM technique. The radiation therapist workload will be analysed based on the minimum number of manpower required for gated DIBH using RPM as compared to photon electron match technique and in terms of training hours. This will be discussed among the radiation therapists and presented in charts. 3.7 Limitation This research can only sample from a small size due to constraint of resources where there is only 1 treatment unit that has the RPM equipment required for DIBH technique. The expected sample size calculated is only an estimate as the treatment difference and standard deviation are never known in advance (Norman Streiner, 2008). As such, the actual sample size may be slightly smaller than 68. 3.8 Expected Results The results from this research are expected to show optimal radiation exposure volumes and doses for the heart and LADCA when treated with gated DIBH using RPM compared to photon electron match technique at free breathing. These results are expected to be compatible with findings from previous studies (Pedersen, et al., 2004; Korreman, et al., 2005; Shim, et al., 2012; Mast, et al., 2013). As such, showing that patients with left sided breast cancer will benefit from gated DIBH using RPM. Treatment time duration for gated DIBH using RPM is expected to have a significant difference and be faster than photon electron match technique. As gated DIBH using RPM is new to the radiation therapists, the workload is expected to be heavier in the beginning. 3.9 Budget There will be no additional cost for this research as the RPM equipment is already available together with the linear accelerator from Varian (Varian Medical System, 1999-2014). There will be no cost for training on the usage for RPM by Varian as it was included in the package when the linear accelerators were bought in 2013. Patients recruited for this research will be charged the same cost as photon electron match treatment technique. 3.10 Expected Timeline This research aims to commence from January 2015 till December 2015. The work plan for both the principal investigator and research assistants can be seen in Appendix W. Chapter IV: Conclusion This research aims to review gated DIBH using RPM as a treatment technique for left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to photon electron match in terms of the radiation dose received by the heart and LADCA. Paired t-test is chosen to measure the significant difference between the dose received by the heart in photon electron match technique and DIBH using RPM technique. Based on literatures that were review, the results are expected to be in favour of gated DIBH using RPM. Interviews will be conducted to assess patient’s comfort and understanding about gated DIBH using RPM. And data collection will be done gauge the workload of the radiation therapist. The results from interview and data collection will allow us to gauge further if it is really practical to implement gated DIBH using RPM in our department. If the results are clinically significant and positive, gated DIBH using RPM will be implemented into our department. 4.1 Recommendation For future recommendation to try contrast-enhanced CT scan in left-sided breast patients so that the LADCA can be seen clearly in the scan and able to be delineated by the doctor effectively (Yu, et al., 2013). This is to increase the accuracy of the delineation of LADCA as well as the accurate amount of radiation dose received by it. After this research, another study can be done in the future on the reproducibility of patient’s breath holding level for every fraction using a cine acquisition mode (CAM) of a linear accelerator during treatment (Goksel, et al., 2013).

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Prejudice In West Side Story :: essays research papers

In the book West Side Story by Arthur Laurents there were many prejudices. Prejudice is a favoring or dislike of something without just grounds or before sufficient knowledge. There were prejudices in West Side Story that had to do with the types of people, their races and sex. Sometimes prejudice can be in small doses and can be meaningless, other times prejudice can be very serious and cause death. Prejudice was the theme of this story, there are many examples.For instance, an act of prejudice in West Side Story was the Puerto Ricans disliking the Americans and vice versa. The PR's diskliked the Americans because the first day, Bernardo (leader of PR gang) was jumped by one of the Jets. The Jets wouldn't let the PR's come on their turf, such as Doc's store. The PR's were not wanted in the U.S. and they were given a hard time. The American's were prejudiced of the Puerto Ricans, so they did cruel things to them.Another act of prejudice in West Side Story was the Jets having prejudice against Anybody's joining their gang. They told her to go wear a dress, she wittily replied that she had scabby knees. She told them that she lurks in the shadows and even provided the Jets with important information. She had a haircut like a boy's and wore boy clothes. This could be a prejudice beyond having a girl in a gang, it could be that they have a prejudice against homosexuals, the fact that the stereotype of lesbians play a role in the character of Anybody's.There were little prejudices passed around in West Side Story. Some people saw through that, some people tried to stop that foolish behavior. Glad Hand, the administrator of the dance, he tried to get everybody to stop acting that way. Glad Hand made everybody split up across the room, and then whoever was directly across from each other danced together. Doc tried to stop the gangs from having the war council, he told them basically to grow up and stop their childishness. Doc and Glad Hand couldn't stop the fighting. Tony saw through the prejudice though, he loved one of the PR's and when the Jets found out, they were ashamed. Tony's love for Maria was so real, he didn't care what happened. He died.Prejudice plagues this world now and forever, as long as there is a difference in people there will discrimination and prejudice.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Competative Analysis: Puma, Reebok, Adidas and Nike Essay

Analyzing the prices of Puma and comparing with its competitor prices was discovered, that all of them are more or less on the same price levels – medium to high. Although, Nike and Adidas products are mostly expensive, while Puma is providing products for affordable prices. Today’s Puma is not only sport clothing and equipment, but also accessories. Puma nail polish, deodorant, shower gels and perfume are easy to find not only in Puma stores, but also in department stores. The other advantage of Puma’s prices could be its discount system – with the appearance of new collections, older ones are given good discounts. Promotion Puma is making a big effort on promoting themselves in many different ways. Nowadays it is hard to imagine a successful company without an official internet page, so one of Puma’s advantages is the fact that it not only has one, but also gives its customers to view and purchase their products online. Puma is also very keen on online customer service – delivery time is 2-7 days and has a 40 day return right. Products on discount are also available. A huge effort is made on organizing events not only for young people. The purpose of these events is simple – combining leisure time with sports: from most simple like ping-pong and darts to football, basketball, volleyball and golf. As its competitors, Puma is not lagging behind on organizing charity events and donating money in Children funds. Puma is also working together with United for Africa and Soles4Soles funds. Going eco-friendly is also one of Puma’s advantages. In order to reduce the environmental impact, Puma is dependent on the cooperation of other industry players. To tackle this issue, Puma has already started to gain support from national governments, environmental organizations, and representatives of science and industry to push for a shift in the current business paradigm towards a more sustainable approach. Puma has demonstrated that accounting for the environment is no longer a ‘holy grail’ objective, but simply makes good business sense. Image/Brand In the recent years the Puma brand has become a synonym of style, fashion and sport. Puma has elevated their brand image so that they now compete with fashion brands as well as their traditional sportswear. To extend their brand Puma has created concept retail stores that enable people to experience the brand in engaging and compelling ways. Adidas brand communicates the company’s goal of fusing sport performance and style competing very closely with Nike’s value proposition. â€Å"Sport performance†, â€Å"sport heritage† and â€Å"sport style† are the three different areas that Adidas has chosen to compete with the value propositions of their traditional competitors. Nike has developed a brand that has global reach trying to bring innovation and inspiration to every athlete in the world. They has partnered with the world’s most famous athletes to build their recognition and reach, perfectly demonstrating the power of image marketing. As well as Puma, Nike has extended their brand by creating concept retail stores. Nike differentiates themselves from Puma by focusing on â€Å"performance driven style†, whereas Puma focus on â€Å"lifestyle driven style†. Adidas tries to improve their performance through technological innovation similar to Nike’s brand. Through the years Reebok has developed a brand that focuses on the lifestyle as well as â€Å"having fun staying in shape†. Reebok is fresh brand, but not as trendy as Nike and Adidas. Like most of the other brands Reebok tries to promote themselves through famous athletes as well. They gain ground across all sports against its competitors. In recent years Reebok invested in innovative designs to make their sports footwear much more comfortable. Design Puma is a well-known brand, but, unfortunately, not one of the most preferred. To analyze consumer’s opinion about Puma and its products, a survey was made. Through interviews of 20 young people – age range 16-30 – who were asked to tell what they thought about Puma as a brand, their design and price of their products in comparison to their competitors, and their promotion effort. Looking at the answers separately, can be concluded that they are almost alike, but there are still a few outliers. Furthermore, customers were asked to advice what Puma should do to become more attractive. It was found out that most of the customers would recommend Puma to focus more on design and making the brand more competitive and visually recognized. The main â€Å"issue† for Puma when looking at the answers was that the customers prefer other alternatives, such as Nike and Adidas. This was mainly because of better and trendier design, which is targeting the â€Å"youngerà ¢â‚¬  target group better. Product The main products of Puma are sportswear, sport shoes and accessorize. Puma divides their products into 2 main categories: sports and lifestyle. Sports field includes clothing for sports such as: football, running, sailing, golf, motorsport and rugby. Lifestyle part includes: timepieces and body wear product collections, providing Urban Mobility. The main product of Puma – casual footwear is very different from their competitors: Puma shoes are more fashionable shoes, than athletic shoes. Furthermore, Puma has an Urban Mobility collection cooperating with world-renowned fashion designer Hussein Chalayan. These unique designed footwear, apparel, and accessories will help Puma to create a utility fashion sportswear, offering for the Mobile lifestyle. This look gives the advantage to their products to become more fashionable and trendy. Mission/Vision Puma cooperates with their main competitors – Adidas and Nike in order to achieve their mission for a better world for the generations to come, leaving behind Reebok. Puma’s mission and vision is to work in ways that contribute to the world by supporting creativity, sustainability and peace and by staying true to the values of being Fair, Honest, Positive and Creative in decisions made and actions taken. According to the aim they will keep on making the products for their customers to love, and at the same time bring that vision of a better world a little closer every day.

Friday, November 8, 2019

65 Compound Words Ending in Stone

65 Compound Words Ending in Stone 65 Compound Words Ending in Stone 65 Compound Words Ending in Stone By Mark Nichol Dozens of compound words, all but a few closed, end with the word stone, though some of the terms have figurative senses stemming from the original meaning and a few do not refer to actual types of rock at all. Here’s a list of most if not all compound words in which stone is the second element, with accompanying definitions. 1. birthstone: a gem symbolically associated with the month of one’s birth 2. bloodstone: a type of quartz with red spots that resemble drops of blood 3. bluestone: a bluish stone used in building 4. bondstone: a stone whose length is equal to the thickness of a wall that is placed in the wall to help strengthen it 5. brimstone: a traditional word for sulfur, chiefly used in the phrase â€Å"fire and brimstone,† referring to sermons in which churchgoers are dramatically warned about hell 6. brownstone: a building stone, and a type of house commonly clad with a layer of the stone 7. capstone: a slanted stone used on the top layer of a wall to allow water to drain off the top; also, figuratively refers to a high point in one’s experience or life 8. cherrystone: a type of clam 9. clingstone: a type of fruit with flesh connected to the stone, or pit 10. cobblestone: a round stone used to pave streets 11. copestone: see capstone 12. cornerstone: a stone placed on the corner of a building, including one traditionally inscribed with the date the building was constructed; also, figuratively refers to something of fundamental importance 13. coverstone: an aggregate of minerals used to cover treated pavement 14. curbstone: a stone, or concrete, used to form a curb 15. dripstone: a stone that projects over a door or window as an awning, or a stalactite or stalagmite made of calcium carbonate 16. drystone: in British English, an adjective describing a wall constructed of stone without mortar 17. fieldstone: a stone found in a field and used for some purpose without alteration 18. firestone: another word for flint (a type of quartz once used to start fires by sparking), or any stone impervious to high heat 19. flagstone: a flat, hard stone used to make paths 20. flintstone: pieces of flint used in construction 21. flowstone: a deposit of calcite formed by water running along or over a cave’s walls or floor 22. footstone: a stone placed at the foot of a grave 23. freestone: a stone able to be cut without splitting, or a stone, or pit, of a fruit not attached to the flesh or fruit with such a pit 24. gallstone: a hard object that forms in the gallbladder 25. gemstone: a stone of such quality that it can be used in jewelry 26. gladstone: a type of suitcase 27. goldstone: a type of glass to which particles of gold-colored material are applied 28. gravestone: a stone that marks the location of a grave and is often engraved with information about that person 29. greenstone: any of various greenish stones, such as a type of jade 30. grindstone: a turning stone wheel against which hard objects such as tools are smoothed or sharpened 31. hailstone: a piece of hail 32. headstone: see gravestone 33. hearthstone: a stone forming part of a hearth, or the floor or interior of a fireplace; also, figuratively, the home 34. holystone: a sandstone used to scrub a ship’s wooden decks 35. hornstone: a type of quartz resembling brittle flint 36. inkstone: a flat stone used as a palette in Chinese art and calligraphy 37. ironstone: a type of rock in which iron is found, or a type of pottery 38. keystone: a large stone at the apex of an arch used to hold the other stones in place; also, figuratively, something on which other things depend 39. lightstone: a grayish yellow 40. limestone: a white building stone 41. lodestone: a magnetic rock 42. merestone: a stone marking a boundary or serving as a landmark 43. milestone: a stone, inscribed with the distance to a specific place, located at the side of a road; also, figuratively, an important event or point of progress 44. millstone: one of two large, round, flat stones sandwiched together and rotated to grind grain; also, figuratively, a burdensome problem or responsibility 45. moonstone: feldspar used as a gem 46. mudstone: a shale formed from consolidated mud 47. oilstone: a whetstone for use with oil 48. philosopher’s stone: an imaginary substance supposedly able to transmute metals into gold 49. pipestone: a stone used for carving into objects (including pipes for smoking tobacco) 50. potstone: a mineral used by prehistoric humans to make cooking vessels 51. rhinestone: a stone resembling a diamond used in decoration and jewelry 52. rolling stone: a figurative term for an itinerant person 53. sandstone: a soft stone made of compacted sand 54. siltstone: a rock made of compacted silt 55. snakestone: any of several types of stones said to help heal a snakebite, a type of stone used in whetstones or for polishing, or a prehistoric shelled animal also known as an ammonite 56. soapstone: a soft stone formed mostly of talc 57. stepping stone: a large, flat stone in a shallow stream that one can step on to cross the water; also, figuratively, something that one can use to achieve a goal 58. toadstone: a stone, supposedly formed inside a toad, used as a charm or as an amulet against poison 59. tombstone: see gravestone 60. touchstone: originally, a small slab of dark stone on which a soft precious metal alloy would leave a trace when the alloy was rubbed against the stone, enabling assayers to evaluate the quality of the alloy; also, figuratively, something used as the basis for judging the quality of something else 61. turnstone: one of several types of birds 62. waterstone: a grindstone or millstone moistened with water instead of oil 63. whetstone: a stone used for sharpening blades 64. whinstone: basaltic rock or similar types of rocks 65. whitestone: an imitation gemstone such as a rhinestone Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:75 Contronyms (Words with Contradictory Meanings)5 Lessons for Mixing Past and Present TenseStarting a Business Letter with Dear Mr.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Psyc 410 essays Essays - American Psychological Association

Psyc 410 essays Essays - American Psychological Association You may write a 1,000-2,000 word book review on one of the books listed above (model: PsycCRITIQUES [see psychINFO]); examples, a guide to writing book reviews, and two brief good-writing guides are available at the Bb site. It will be worth 30 points (1 Test). If you write a book review AND take all 5 tests, I will throw out the lowest of the 6 scores. March Distinguish positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. Distinguish the 3 forms of behaviorism. Phiscyoligiacal -padlock The purpose is to explain human Response , learning history, and reinforcements Methodlogical- It is something that scienece can not study and other peoples minds are private so you cant study their thoughts Radical behavior- skinner To exclude consiouness from psychology is a mistake that it should be included not just what you see Cognitive vs. non-cognitive theory Similarity and contiguity as laws of association Always automatic once they are associated The Blank Slate Not having any pre expose behaior Expose by herbet spencer he created this Which means evolution, where humans have the highest evolution. The bigger the brain the more the ideas The various patterns of temporal relation between CS and US If the condition stimulus is present from us stimulus it can then work the best Time can act as a condition stimulus as well Generalization and discrimination That the dog still answer to a type of tone as long as it is similar discrimination- when its completely different, if present a different stimulus they would present different shapes elipse and dog would learn to discrimante against if not presented with an award (reinformecment) Conditioning of excitation and inhibition Inhibition - goes to extinction when they thought the behavior was un learned by actually the dog di Conditioned emotional reaction Loud noise is associated with fear, kid and rat- see generalization, saw rabit scared too Law of Effect If you get a postive response they are more likey to do it again Pg 75 "Autonomous man" as attacked by Skinner sperates man from animal, with emtion, concepts and judements. He agrued against the theory. Shaping The graduall renforicemtn of an uncondition turing into condition Discriminated operant Pg 119 Partial reinforcement effect Pg 122 animals take longer to learn Tact, including self-tact and private tact Skinner concept Made up word he use for concept or idea for if you come in contact You absube what somebody is doing with their enviorment Self- we ask our self what we are doing, most people didn't like this concept Superstitious behavior Experiment done Pg 77 Hearst Skinner study it, but h. said Pigeon in a chamber- associated with reward Preparedness Cancer patient When they saw the nurse and doctor or the medication they became nauseous Animals do not associate sounds, its more taste Learned helplessness Pg 85 Criticize the traditional distinction of the 2 types of conditioning. Operant - skinner and thorndike 4.What did Thorndike mean when he said that reward "stamps in" an S-R connection? pg104 part of law and effect- without reward there is no 5.Be able to describe each major behavioral theorist's views on each of the basic issues about the nature and cause of learning. 6.Why did Skinner regard concepts such as " superego" or "habit strength" unnecessary in science? Because he is a behaviorist He believes that you cant prove it Pg 126 Habit strength- how long the response has been learned 7.What were Skinner's criticisms of existing methods in studying learning? Pg 124-125 8.How did Kohler and Voeks criticize claims that learning was a gradual process? Pg 78 He has worked with apes and found problem. Put a box in the room an apes would climb up and get banana and did this by insight 9.Distinguish positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. 10.Contrast the stimulus substitution and cognitive theories of Pavlovian conditioning. Dogs would still come if not meat just by ring of the bell 11.How does Siegel explain drug addiction as a form of Pavlovian conditioning? Pg 91 12.What was the political appeal of the Blank Slate idea?Why are fears of refuting the Blank Slate idea misplaced? The video on sylabus- theory said that it supports the idea that you can create a good Appeal it because There would be no idenetiy and you cant change 13.How does Pinker link decline in elite art to the rise of belief in the Blank Slate idea? Pg 78 14. Define and give examples of the continuity and discontinuity views of learning. 15.Describe E.R. Guthrie's position on learning and how he believed tasks were learned, using an example. 16. Describe the two theories used to explain partial reinforcement and name

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Southwest airlines company Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4500 words

Southwest airlines company - Case Study Example Analysis 16 6. Improvement due to the initiatives 17 7. Alignment of initiatives towards strategic management 18 7.1 Towards Customer 18 7.2 Towards Environment 19 7.3 Towards Operations 19 8. Comparison with other organizations 20 Reference 22 1. Southwest Airlines Southwest Airlines officially started operating in Dallas 42 years ago. After they took off the first flight, there was a radical change in the ways the Americans used to fly. Southwest ruled the skies by introducing low fare travel, offering free whisky on board, go-go boots and undergoing rigorous expansion. The vision of the company was to provide the business people with a more efficient and faster way to travel at a much lower cost and rendering the personable service with smile and warmth. Southwest airlines have dealt in more domestic passengers than any other airlines. The company has grown with leaps and bounds and evolved as a strong organization but has retained the original vision. The company continues to pro vide low fare, excellent customer service and convenient flight schedules. The company has changed their products and services in order to cater to the changing taste of the customers. Not only the travelling habits of the customers have changed but also the short haul travel has declined. As a response to this the company has upgraded their fleet by refurbishing cabins and adding on board access to live Television and Wi-Fi. Apart from this the company has also introduced a series of new, sleek Boeing 737-800 aircraft to the convoy of longer flights. The company has acquired Air-Tran Airways and have undertaken the task of integrating the two airlines in order to form a bigger and stronger organization. Apart from this the company has also renewed their â€Å"Rapid Rewards Frequent Flyer program†. The management of the company has equipping the airline for international services and AirTran is providing the start to the company for offering its services to the destinations l ike Caribbean and Mexico. The company looks for innovative ways to provide the customers with more value and choices. Southwest Airlines has always been pioneer in providing better and new ways to fly. The airline has always provided low cost, friendly and reliable ways to provide value to the customers (Kelly, 2013). 2. Measurement and Control System The airline is leading amongst the major low cost airlines operating in the industry. The company has been affirming their position as low-fare not by harassing, annoying or making the customers expectation trivial but by launching ‘No Change Fees and Bags Fly Free campaign’. They are ranked first in Customer satisfaction by US Department of Transportation and ranked fourth in the Fortune 2011 list as the most admired company. To reach such a position the company has to follow several measures both in financial performance and customer satisfaction. Apart from this the company also uses the environment control system (Sout hwest Airlines, 2010). 2.1 Financial Measures The financial statement of the Southwest Airlines is prepared according to the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) followed in United States of America. The financial statement under GAAP requires reclassification and adjustment of unrealized non-cash items. This is important as a result of accounting obligation and selection under accounting declaration regarding hedging and derivative instruments. The company also provides

Friday, November 1, 2019

Visual Arts And Film Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Visual Arts And Film - Essay Example The features of melodrama, according to Peter Brooks are several among them are that melodrama has a beginning and wants to end in innocence. Melodrama is also depicted as having victim-heroes whose virtues are upheld in the end. Melodrama borrows from realism to appear real. This is done so as to add action and passion in the film. With melodrama, there is pathos and action. Characters who represent good and evil are the main cast in the melodrama.The opening sequence of All About My Mother is serene and depicts the beginning of a rather emotional movie. The opening sequence of The Return is rather scary. The movie starts with slow music that makes it sound like a horror film. The opening sequence of Raise the Red Lantern depicts the traditional lifestyle of the Chinese and presents a Chinese aura about the movie. The opening sequence of Kung Fu Hustle is dramatic and serves to hold the viewer's attention towards the start of a dramatic movie. The opening sequence of The Maid is ent ertaining even with the starting music that seems to suggest the beginning of a comedy-like film. An example of self-reflexivity in the film is Attitude and ability for one to measure them. Also, one can self-learn instrumentally or socio-culturally. This is with the aid of personal actions or activities. The author of quote A is Samantha Lay. The author of the second quote is David Bordwell. The author of quote C is Cesare Zavattini. The author of quote D is Stephen Neale. The author of quote E is Raymond Williams.